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Eau de Cologne (Kölnisch Wasser) was a perfume originally mixed by Italian immigrant Johann Maria Farina in 1709 but is now a generic term for scented concentrations marketed for men. In a base of dilute ethanol (70%–90%), it contains a mixture of citrus oils (including oils of lemon, orange, tangerine, clementine, bergamot, lime, grapefruit, blood orange, and bitter orange) and oils of neroli, lavender, rosemary, thyme, oregano, petitgrain (orange leaf), jasmine, olive, oleaster, and tobacco though the Farina formulation is still secret. He told his brother, "I have found a fragrance that reminds me of an Italian spring morning, of mountain daffodils and orange blossoms after the rain." Drinking it was thought to prevent bubonic plague, since the citrus oil scent exuded through the pores would repel fleas. A vial of it would cost half the annual salary of a civil servant. In 1806, Farina's grand-grand-nephew Jean Marie Joseph Farina opened his own perfumery in Paris, which was later sold to Roger & Gallet and owns the rights to the Farina formula. (When the French established free trade in the city, other businessmen sold their own fragrances under the same name, particularly Wilhelm Mülhens' "4711" blend named after its location at Glockengasse No. 4711; in 2006 Mäurer & Wirtz took over 4711 from Procter & Gamble and expanded it to an entire brand.)
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