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al-Andalus was a medieval Muslim region comprising most of modern Spain and Portugal and southern France (Septimania), though the boundaries changed constantly in the face of Christian aggression. Córdoba was its most culturally important polity, the birthplace of important advances in trigonometry,, astronomy, surgery, and pharmacology. Córdoba fell in 1236, and most of the south quickly fell under Christian rule; after 1249 the Emirate of Granada, a tributary of the Kingdom of Castile, was the only remaining Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula. On January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered to Queen Isabella I of Castile setting the economic and political stage for Christopher Columbus' voyages of exploration that began the following autumn. The cuisine, architecture, gardens, and textiles of Spain and Portugal, particularly in Andalusia, continue to be influenced by the old Muslim culture. The etymology of al-Andalus is uncertain; the oldest references are inscriptions on coins minted around 715, but the name of the region is traditionally derived from the Vandals, the Germanic tribe who colonized parts of Iberia in the early 5th century. Another, more exotic, theory is that Andalus is an Arabic-language version of "Atlantis" or "Atlantic."According to Arabic commentaries on Greek and Latin legends, the island inhabited by the Amazons was located in "jauf Al-Andalus," to the north or interior of the Atlantic Ocean.Bob's photo is that a a bronze statue in San Francisco, by Anna Hyatt Huntington, portraying Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, the legendary national hero of Castilla, an 11th-century Castilian nobleman known to the Moors as "El Cid" (the Lord) and to the Christians as El Campeador" (the Champion) who established a short-lived, independent, pluralistic principality in Valencia (the eastern Mediterranean coast of Spain) that had the popular support of Christians and Muslims alike. by Christians. He was born in Vivar, a town near the city of Burgos. After his death, he became the legendary national hero of Castile, and the protagonist of The Lay of El Cid, a medieval Spanish epic poem.
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