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Rocaille employed pebbles, seashells, and cement to decorate grottoes, fountains, doorways, furniture, wall panels, and other architectural elements. Baroque was an ornate, extravagant style of art, derived from the Portuguese "barroco" (an irregularly shaped pearl). At 1st it was applied to music -- Jean-Jacques Rousseau described it as music "in which the harmony is confused, and loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, and the movement limited." In 1835 "rococo" was coined as a humorous combination of rocaille and baroque to describe excessively ornamental art. But it came to describe a style that combined asymmetry, scrolling curves, gilding, white and pastel colors, sculpted molding, and trompe l'oeil frescoes. It uses curves, counter-curves, undulations, and elements modeled on nature. It often integrated painting, molded stucco, wood carving, and quadratura (ceiling paintings designed to give the impression of looking up at the sky). Common materials included stucco (painted or left white), combinations of different colored woods, lacquered wood. and gilded bronze.
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